– 2022

H. Shahbeik, W. Peng, H. Kazemi Shariat Panahi, M. Dehhaghi, G. J. Guillemin, A. Fallahi, H. Amiri, M. Rehan, D. Raikwar, H. Latine, B. Pandalone, B. Khoshnevisan, C. Sonne, L. Vaccaro, A.-S. Nizami, V. K. Gupta, S. S. Lam, J. Pan, R. Luque, B. Sels, M. Tabatabaei and M. Aghbashlo.

Synthesis of liquid biofuels from biomass by hydrothermal gasification: A critical review.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2022, 167, 112833.

S. J. Saghanezhad, L. Vaccaro, A. Zarei Ahmady and R. Farsi.

Phosphotungstic acid-supported melamine–terephthalaldehyde covalent organic framework as a novel and reusable nanostructured catalyst in three-component synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-trione derivatives.

Res Chem Intermed, 2022, 48, 3851–3865.

A. Marrocchi, V. Trombettoni, F. Campana, V. Passagrilli, A. Nazari, M. P. Bracciale, M. L. Santarelli and L. Vaccaro

Glycerol valorization: Development of selective protocols for acetals production through tailor-made macroreticular acid resins.

Catalysis Today, , DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2022.08.018.

F. Jia, J. He, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, Y. Gu, L. Vaccaro and P. Liu

C4-Sulfenylation of 4-iodine-1H-pyrazole-5-amine with arylsulfonyl hydrazide in water.

Molecular Catalysis, 2022, 528, 112485.

Federica Valentini, Benedetta Di Erasmoa, Carlo Ciancuti, Simone Rossia, Samuele Maramai, Maurizio Taddei, Luigi Vaccaro

Macroreticular POLITAG-Pd(0) for the waste minimized hydrogenation/reductive amination of phenols using formic acid as hydrogen source.

Catalysis Today, 2022, DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2022.07.001.

Giulia Quaglia, Filippo Campana, Loredana Latterini, and Luigi Vaccaro.

Green Solvent Selection for Green-to-Blue Upconversion Based on TTA.

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2022, XXXX, XXX, XXX-XXX.

Federica Valentini, Giulia Brufani, Benedetta Di Erasmo, Luigi Vaccaro.

γ-Valerolactone (GVL) as a green and efficient dipolar aprotic reaction medium.

Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 36, August 2022, 100634.

Nihad Salameh, Ioannis Anastasiou, Francesco Ferlin, Francesco Minio, Shaomin Chen, Stefano Santoro, Ping Liu, Yanglong Gu, Luigi Vaccaro.

Heterogeneous palladium-catalysed intramolecular C(sp3)single bondH α-arylation for the green synthesis of oxindoles.

Molecular Catalysis, Volume 522, April 2022, 112211.

Federica Valentini, Assunta Marrocchi, Luigi Vaccaro.

Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs) as H-Source for Bio-Derived Fuels and Additives Production.

Advanced Energy Materials, Volume 12, Issue 13, April 7, 2022, 2103362.

Dr. Francesco Ferlin, Ioannis Anastasiou, Nihad Salameh, Takeru Miyakoshi, Prof. Olivier Baudoin, Prof. Luigi Vaccaro.

C(sp3)−H Arylation Promoted by a Heterogeneous Palladium-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex in Batch and Continuous Flow.

ChemSusChem, Volume 15, Issue 6 March 22, 2022, e202102736.

Nihad Salameh, Francesco Ferlin, Federica Valentini, Ioannis Anastasiou, and Luigi Vaccaro*

Waste-Minimized Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Oxindoles Exploiting a Polymer-Supported N Heterocyclic Palladium Carbene Complex in a CPME/Water Azeotrope.

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2022, 10, 11, 3766–3776.

Francesco Brunori, Dr. Deepak Kumar Padhi, Israel Alshanski, Dr. Joanna Freyse, Jan-Niklas Dürig, Anja Penk, Prof. Luigi Vaccaro, Dr. Mattan Hurevich, Prof. Jörg Rademann, Prof. Shlomo Yitzchaik.

Sulfation Pattern Dependent Iron(III) Mediated Interleukin-8 Glycan Binding.

ChemBioChem, Volume23, Issue3, February 4, 2022, e202100552.

Yang Li, Yali Liu, Di Hao, Chuntian Li, Yan Liu, Yan long Gu, Luigi Vaccaro, Ping Liu.

Cu-catalyzed direct C1–H trifluoromethylation of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines.

Tetrahedron Volume 105, 22 January 2022, 132610.

Tailor-Made POLITAG-Pd0 Catalyst for the Low-Loading Mizoroki–Heck Reaction in γ-Valerolactone as a Safe Reaction Medium.

F. Valentini, L. Carpisassi, A. Comès, C. Aprile and L. Vaccaro.

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2022, 10, 12386–12393.

Filippo Campana, Daniela Lanari, Assunta Marrocchi, LuigiVaccaro.

Chapter 12 – Green solvents for organic electronics processing

Sustainable Strategies in Organic Electronics.
Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
2022, Pages 425-462.

Di Hao, Zhen Yang, Yali Liu, Yang Li, Chuntian Li, Yanlong Gu, Luigi Vaccaro, Jichang Liu* and Ping Liu*

Pd-Catalyzed direct C–H arylation of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines

Org. Biomol. Chem., 2022,20, 847-851.

Xuezhen Li,Jing He, Mingxi Du, Jie Zhang, Yanlong Gu, Luigi Vaccaro, Ping Liu.

I2/K2S2O8-Promoted ring-opening cyclizations of benzothiazoles and 3-oxo-3-arylpropanenitriles.

Molecular Catalysis Volume 517, January 2022, 112051.

Jose Osorio-Tejada, Francesco Ferlin, Luigi Vaccaro and Volker Hessel

Life cycle assessment of multistep benzoxazole synthesis: from batch to waste-minimised continuous flow systems.

Green Chem., 2022,24, 325-337

– 2021

Volume 2 Flow Chemistry – Applications
With contributions by: Francesco Ferlin, Daniela Lanari, Luigi Vaccaro, Federica Valentini and others.
Edited by: Ferenc Darvas, György Dormán, Volker Hessel and Steven V. Ley

Published by De Gruyter 2021, Flow Chemistry–Applications, 159

CHAPTER 16: Sustainable Tools for Flow Chemistry, from the book Sustainable Organic Synthesis: Tools and Strategy

Francesco Ferlin and Luigi Vaccaro

  • Francesco Ferlin, Federica Valentini, Daniele Sciosci, Massimo Calamante, Elena Petricci and Luigi Vaccaro, Biomass Waste-Derived Pd–PiNe Catalyst for the Continuous-Flow Copper-Free Sonogashira Reaction in a CPME–Water Azeotropic Mixture, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2021, 9, 36, 12196–12204.

  • Volker Hessel, Marc Escribà-Gelonch, Jodie Bricout, Nam Nghiep Tran, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Dr. Federica Valentini, Dr. Francesco Ferlin, Elena Tomarelli, Dr. Hamed Mahmoudi, Prof. Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Dr. Massimo Calamante, Prof. Luigi Vaccaro, A Waste-Minimized Approach to Cassar-Heck Reaction Based on POLITAG-Pd0 Heterogeneous Catalyst and Recoverable Acetonitrile Azeotrope, ChemSusChem, 2021, 14(16), 3359-3366.

  • Ioannis Anastasiou, Francesco Ferlin, Orlando Viteritti, Stefano Santoro, Luigi Vaccaro, Pd/C-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C–H alkenylation of arenes in γ-valerolactone (GVL), Molecular Catalysis, 2021, 513, 111787.

  • Volker Hessel, Marc Escribà-Gelonch, Jodie Bricout, Nam Nghiep Tran, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Francesco Ferlin, Federica Valentini, Daniela Lanari and Luigi Vaccaro, Quantitative Sustainability Assessment of Flow Chemistry–From Simple Metrics to Holistic Assessment, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2021, 9, 29, 9508–9540.

  • Pengxiao Liang, Luca Mancini, Demian Marchione, Gianmarco Vanuzzo, Francesco Ferlin, Pedro Recio, Yuxin Tan, Giacomo Pannacci, Luigi Vaccaro, Marzio Rosi, Piergiorgio Casavecchia and Nadia Balucani, Combined crossed molecular beams and computational study on the N(2D) + HCCCN(X1Σ+) reaction and implications for extra-terrestrial environments, Molecular Physics, e1948126.

  • Valeria Trombettoni, Francesco Ferlin, Federica Valentini, Filippo Campana, Matteo Silvetti, Luigi Vaccaro, POLITAG-Pd(0) catalyzed continuous flow hydrogenation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds using sodium formate as a safe H-source, Molecular Catalysis, 2021, 509, 111613.

  • Francesco Ferlin, Federica Valentini, Giulia Brufani, Daniela Lanari and Luigi Vaccaro, Waste-Minimized Cyanosilylation of Carbonyls Using Fluoride on Polymeric Ionic Tags in Batch and under Continuous Flow Conditions, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2021, 9, 16, 5740–5749.

  • Francesco Ferlin, Daniele Sciosci, Federica Valentini, Janet Menzio, Giancarlo Cravotto, Katia Martina and Luigi Vaccaro, Si-Gly-CD-PdNPs as a hybrid heterogeneous catalyst for environmentally friendly continuous flow Sonogashira cross-coupling, Green Chem., 2021,23, 7210-7218.

  • Francesco Ferlin, Ioannis Anastasiou, Luigi Carpisassi and Luigi Vaccaro, Aerobic waste-minimized Pd-catalysed C–H alkenylation in GVL using a tube-in-tube heterogeneous flow reactor, Green Chem., 2021,23, 6576-6582.

  • Federica Valentini, Francesco Ferlin, Simone Lilli, Assunta Marrocchi, Liu Ping, Yanlong Gu and Luigi Vaccaro, Valorisation of urban waste to access low-cost heterogeneous palladium catalysts for cross-coupling reactions in biomass-derived γ-valerolactone, Green Chem., 2021,23, 5887-5895.

  • Federica Valentini, Oriana Piermatti and Luigi Vaccaro, Metal Nanoparticles as Sustainable Tools for C–N Bond Formation via C–H Activation, Molecules 2021, 26(13), 4106.

  • Feng Gao, Francesco Ferlin, Rongxian Bai, Minghao Li, Luigi Vaccaro and Yanlong Gu, Replacing halogenated solvents by a butyl acetate solution of bisphenol S in the transformations of indoles, Green Chem., 2021,23, 3588-3594.

  • F. Ferlin, A. Zangarelli, S. Lilli, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro, Waste-minimized synthesis of C2 functionalized quinolines exploiting iron-catalysed C–H activation, Green Chem., 2021, 23, 490-495.


– 2020

  • 3. D. Sciosci, F. Valentini, F. Ferlin, S. Chen, Y. Gu, O. Piermatti L. Vaccaro, Heterogeneous and recoverable palladium catalyst to access the regioselective C–H alkenylation of quinoline N-oxides, Green Chem., 2020, 22, 6560–6566.


7. L. Vaccaro, Green Shades in Organic Synthesis, Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2020, 4273–4283.

Celebrating 40 Years of the Giacomo Ciamician Medal

8. WD.C.Nobre, C. Cunha, A. Porciello, F. Valentini, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro, A. M. Galvão, J. S. Seixas de Melo, Photoresponsive N,N′-disubstituted indigo derivatives, Dyes and Pigments, 2020, 176, 108197.

9. W. Li, J. Zhang, J. He, L. Xu, L. Vaccaro, P. Liu,. Y. Gu, I2/DMSO-Catalyzed Transformation of N-tosylhydrazones to 1,2,3-thiadiazoles, Frontiers in Chem.2020, 8, 466.

  • 10. F. Ferlin, A. Marini, N. Ascani, L. Ackermann, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro, Heterogeneous Manganese‐Catalyzed Oxidase C−H/C−O Cyclization to Access Pharmaceutically Active Compounds, ChemCatChem 2020, 12, 449-454.

  • 11. H. Mahmoudi, M. Bagherzadeh, S. Ataie, R. Kia, S. H. Moravej, M. Zareb, P. R. Raithby, F. Ferlin, L. Vaccaro, Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of a Molybdenum(VI) Schiff base complex: Design of a new catalytic system for sustainable olefin epoxidation, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2020, 511, 119775

12. I. Anastasiou, N. Van Velthoven, E. Tomarelli, A. Lombi, D. Lanari, P. Liu, S. Bals, D. E. De Vos, L. Vaccaro, C2–H Arylation of Indoles Catalyzed by Palladium-Containing Metal-Organic-Framework in gamma-Valerolactone, ChemSusChem 2020, 13, 2786 – 2791.

13. D. Ho, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Park, K. Cho, F. Campana, D. Lanari, A. Facchetti, S. Y. Seo, C. Kim, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro, Green solvents for organic thin-film transistor processing, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 5786—5794.

14. Luigi Vaccaro et al. “Flow Chemistry: A Mature Technology still on the Rise”, CHEManager 2020 (1), 11-12.

15. F. Ferlin, P. M. Luque Navarro, Y. Gu, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro, Waste minimized synthesis of pharmaceutically active compounds via heterogeneous manganese catalysed C–H oxidation in flow, Green Chem.,2020, 22, 397–403.

Book cover

16. S. Santoro, F. Ferlin, L. Vaccaro, “The sustainable batch or continuous-flow preparation of biomass derived fuels using sulfonated organic polymers” In “Flow Chemistry: Integrated Approaches for Practical Applications”, Editors: Editors: Santiago V Luis, Eduardo Garcia-Verdugo, RSC, 2019, ISBN: 978-1-78801-512-7.

17.  O. Piermatti, R Abu-Reziq, L Vaccaro, “Strategies to Immobilized Catalysts: A Key Tool for Modern Chemistry”, in Catalyst Immobilization: Methods and Applications, Eds: A. Puglisi, M. Puglisi, 2020. ISBN: 9783527345090. 

19.  L. Vaccaro et al, in Sustainable nanoscale engineering: from materials design to chemical processing, Eds: G. Szekely, A. Livingston, Elsevier, Amsterdam (NL), ISBN: 978-0-12-814681-1. 


– 2019

1.  S. Santoro, F. Ferlin, L. Ackermann, L. Vaccaro, “C–H functionalization reactions under flow conditions”, Chem. Soc. Rev. 201948, 2767–2782. 

 2.  F. Valentini, V. Kozell, C. Petrucci, A. Marrocchi, Y. Gu, D. Gelman, L. Vaccaro, “Formic Acid, a biomass-derived source of energy and hydrogen for biomass upgrading”, Energy. Env. Sci. 201912, 2646-2664  

3.  H. Mahmoudi, F. Valentini, F. Ferlin, L. A. Bivona, I. Anastasiou, L.vFusaro, C. Aprile, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro, “A tailored polymeric cationic tag–anionic Pd (II) complex as a catalyst for the low-leaching Heck–Mizoroki coupling in flow and in biomass-derived GVL”, Green Chem201921, 355–360.

4.  F. Ferlin, M. Cappelletti, R. Vivani, M. Pica, O. Piermatti, L. Vaccaro,
“Au@ zirconium-phosphonate nanoparticles as an effective catalytic system for the chemoselective and switchable reduction of nitroarenes”, Green Chem. 201921 614–626

5.  L. Vaccaro, S. Santoro, L. Luciani, C. Melone, F. Ferlin, “Polarclean
from waste valorization of Nylon 66 manufacturing: A sustainable solvent for organic synthesis”,Chem. Today201937, 60–63.

6.  F. Valentini, H. Mahmoudi, L.A. Bivona, O. Piermatti, M. Bagherzadeh, L.
Fusaro, C. Aprile, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro, “Polymer-supported bis-1, 2, 4-triazolium ionic tag framework for an efficient Pd (0) catalytic system in biomass derived γ-valerolactone”, ACS Sus. Chem. Eng. 20197, 6939–6946.

7.  G Parthasarathy, N Kaplaneris, S Santoro, L Vaccaro, L Ackermann, “Biomass-Derived Solvents for Sustainable Transition Metal-Catalyzed C‒H Activation”, ACS Sus. Chem. Eng., 2019, 7, 8023–8040.

8.  M. Bagherzadeh, H. Mahmoudi, S. Ataie, M. Hafezi-Kahnamouei, S. Shahrokhian, G. Bellachioma, L. Vaccaro, “Synthesis, characterization, and comparison of two
new copper (II) complexes containing Schiff-base and diazo ligands as new catalysts in CuAAC reaction”, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2019492, 213–220.

9.   V. Trombettoni, A. Franco, A. G. Sathicq, C. Len, G. P. Romanelli, L. Vaccaro, R. Luque, “Efficient Liquid‐Assisted Grinding Selective Aqueous Oxidation of Sulfides Using Supported Heteropolyacid Catalysts”, ChemCatChem 201911, 2537–2545. 

10.   Luigi Vaccaro et al. “Cheaper, Faster, Smaller, Cleaner, Prospects of Flow Chemistry for Fine & Specialty Chemicals and Pharma”, CHEManager 2019 (1), 20-22. 

11.   V. Trombettoni, F. Campana, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro, “The sustainable batch or continuous-flow preparation of biomass derived fuels using sulfonated organic polymers” In Green Synthetic Processes and Procedures, Editor: R. Ballini, RSC, 2019, ISBN:978-1-78801-512-7. 

12.  A. Marrocchi, V. Trombettoni, D. Sciosci, F. Campana, L. Vaccaro*. “Key trends in sustainable approaches to the synthesis of semiconducting polymers” invited chapter in “Handbook of Organic Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices”, O. Ostroverkhova,  Elsevier. 2019, ches to the synthesis of semiconducting polymers” invited chapter in “Handbook of Organic Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices”, O. Ostroverkhova,  Elsevier. 2019, 43-89. ISBN 978-0-08-102284-9.

13.  T. Verheyen, N. Santillo, D. Marinelli, E. Petricci, W. M De Borggraeve, L. Vaccaro, M. Smet, “An Effective and Reusable Hyperbranched Polymer Immobilized Rhodium-Catalyst for the Hydroformylation of Olefins”, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 201916, 1496–1504.

14.  F. Ferlin, T. Giannoni, A. Zuliani, O. Piermatti, R: Luque, L. Vaccaro, “Sustainable Protocol for the Reduction of Nitroarenes by Heterogeneous Au@SBA‐15 with NaBH4 under Flow Conditions”, ChemSusChem 2019, 12, 3178-3184

15.  M. Bagherzadeh, H. Mahmoudi, S. Ataie, M. Bahjati, R. Kia, P. R. Raithby. L. Vaccaro, “Synthesis and characterization of a new zwitterionic palladium complex as an environmentally friendly catalyst for the Heck-Mizoroki coupling reaction in GVL”, Molecular Catal, 2019474, 110406 

Graphical abstract: Front cover

16. F. Ferlin, M. K. van der Hulst, S. Santoro, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro, Continuous flow/waste-minimized synthesis of benzoxazoles catalysed by heterogeneous manganese systems, Green Chem. 2019, 21, 5298–5305

17 F. Ferlin, S. R. Yetra, S. Warratz, L. Vaccaro, L. Ackermann, “Reusable Pd@ PEG Catalyst for Aerobic Dehydrogenative C− H/C− H Arylations of 1, 2, 3‐Triazoles”, Chem. Eur. J. 2019, 25, 11427–11431.

18. S. Mujahedd, F. Valentini, S.D. Cohen, L. Vaccaro, D. Gelman, Efficient, Recoverable, and Durable Polymer‐anchored Bifunctional Pincer Catalysts for Chemoselective Transfer Hydrogenation and Related Reactions, ChemSusChem 2019, 12, 4693–4699.

19. F. Ferlin, L. Luciani, O. Viteritti, F. Brunori, O. Piermatti, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro, “Polarclean as a Sustainable Reaction Medium for the Waste Minimized Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds, Frontiers Cgem. 2019, 6, 669.

20. A. El‐Harairy, Y. B. Lai, L. Vaccaro, M. Li, Y. Gu A Sulfone-Containing Imidazolium-Based Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquid Catalyst Enables Replacing Dipolar Aprotic Solvents with Butyl Acetate, Adv. Synth. Catal., Adv. Synth, Catal. 2019, 361, 3342–3350. VIP paper


22. L. Vaccaro. S. Santoro, L. Luciani, I. Anastasiou, F. Ferlin, Combining flow conditions and recoverable catalysts and media for sustainable C–H functionalization processes, Chem. Today, 2019, 37, 60–63.

– 2018

1.  L. Luciani, E. Goff, D. Lanari, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*, “Waste-minimised copper-catalysedazide–alkyne cycloaddition in Polarclean as a reusable and safe reaction medium”, Green Chem. 201820, 183–187.  

Selected among the 2017 Green Chemistry Hot Articles

2.  V. Trombettoni, Daniela Lanari, P. Prinsenc, R. Luque, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro*, “Recent advances in sulfonated resin catalysts for efficient biodiesel and bio-derived additives production”, Prog. Energy. Comb. Sc. 201865, 136–162.

3.  L. Vaccaro*, M. Curini, F. Ferlin, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi, O. Piermatti, V. Trombettoni “Definition of green synthetic tools basedon safer reaction media, heterogeneous catalysis, and flow technology”, Pure Appl. Chem.201890, 21–23

 4.  A. Bechtold, M. E. Baumert, L. Vaccaro, L. Ackermann, “Ruthenium(II) oxidase catalysis for C–H alkenylations in biomass-derived γ-valerolactone”, Green Chem., 2018,20, 398-402 

5.  M. Keshavarz, A. Zarei Ahmady, L. Vaccaro, M. Kardani. “Non-Covalent Supported of l-Proline on Graphene Oxide/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: A Novel, Highly Efficient and Superparamagnetically Separable Catalyst for the Synthesis of Bis-Pyrazole Derivatives”, Molecules. 201823 (2), 330

6.  F. Ferlin, V. Trombettoni, L. Luciani, S. Fusi, O. Piermatti, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*. “Waste-minimized protocol for copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction in a biomass derived furfuryl alcohol/water azeotrope”, Green Chem. 2018201634–1639. 

7.  F. Valentini, N. Santillo, C. Petrucci, D. Lanari, E. Petricci, M. Taddei, L. Vaccaro*. “Continuous-Flow Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Cyclohexanones from Phenols using Sodium Formate as a Safe Hydrogen Source”, ChemCatChem201810, 1277–1281.

8.  V. Kozell, F. Rahmani, O. Piermatti, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro*. A stereoselective organic base-catalyzed protocol for hydroamination of alkynes under solvent-free conditions”, Mol. Catal. 2018455, 188–191.

9.  F. Ferlin,L. Luciani,S. Santoro,A. Marrocchi,D. Lanari,A. Bechtoldt,L. Ackermann,L. Vaccaro*. “A continuous flow approach for the C–H functionalization of 1,2,3-triazoles in γ-valerolactone as biomass-derived medium”, Green Chem. 201820, 2888–2893. highlighted in Synfacts 2018, 14 (09), 0987.

10.  V. Trombettoni, D. Sciosci, M. P. Bracciale, F. Campana, M. L. Santarelli, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro*. “Boosting biomass valorisation. Synergistic design of continuous flow reactors and water-tolerant polystyrene acid catalysts for a non-stop production of esters”, Green Chem. 201820, 3222–3231. cover journal accepted for publication

11. E. Petricci, C. Risi, F. Ferlin, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro*. “Avoiding hot-spots in Microwave assisted Pd/C catalysed reactions by using the biomass derived solvent γ-Valerolactone”, Scientific Rep. 20188, 10571.

12.   S. Santoro, A. Marrocchi, D. Lanari, L. Ackermann, L. Vaccaro, Towards Sustainable C–H Functionalization Reactions: the Emerging Role of Bio-Based Reaction Media. Chem. Eur. J.201824, 13383–13390.

– 2017 

1.  S. Santoro, F. Ferlin, L. Luciani, L. Ackermann*, L. Vaccaro*. Biomass-derived solvents as effective media for cross-coupling reactions and C–H Applications functionalization processes. Green Chem. 2017,19, 1601-1612. 

Selected among the 2017 Green Chemistry Hot Articles

2.  F. Ferlin, S. Santoro, L. Ackermann, L. Vaccaro*, Heterogeneous C–H Alkenylations in Continuous-Flow: Oxidative Palladium-Catalysis in a Biomass-Derived Reaction Medium, Green Chem.2017,19, 2510 – 2514.


  D. Lanari, O. Piermatti, C.Morozzi, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*. Recent Applications of Solid-Supported Ammonium Fluorides in Organic SynthesisSynthesis 2017, 49, 973-980. 

4.  L. Vaccaro* Editor: Sustainable Flow Chemistry: Methods and Applications, Wiley-VCH, 2017, ISBN: 978-3-527-33852-8 

5.  L. Vaccaro* Il ruolo della chimica nella realizzazione del moderno concetto di sotenibilità, Ingenium 2017, 17-21.

6.  J. Pina, D. Santos Sarmento, M. Accoto, P. L. Gentili, A. M. Galvão, Luigi Vaccaro*, J. S. Seixas de Melo*, Excited State Proton Transfer in Indigo, J. Phys. Chem. B, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2017, 121, 2308–2318

 7.  L. Vaccaro*, S. Santoro, M. Curini, D. Lanari, The emerging use of γ-valerolactone as a green solvent, Chem. Today 2017, 35 (2), 46-48.

8.  N. S. Maram, M. Jelvehgari, L. Vaccaro, D- Lanari, L. Mafakher, A. Z. Ahmady, Preparation of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Nanoparticles and Survey of the Factors Influence their Properties, Oriental J. Chem.201733, 575‑583,

9.  Vadym Kozell, Tommaso Giannoni, Morena Nocchetti, Riccardo Vivani, O. Piermatti,* L. Vaccaro*, “Immobilized Palladium Nanoparticles on Zirconium Carboxy-Aminophosphonates Nanosheets as an Efficient Recoverable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck Coupling, Catalysts2017,7, 186.

10.  V. Trombettoni, L. Bianchi, A, Zupanic, A. Porciello, M. Cuomo, O. Piermatti, L. Vaccaro*, “IEfficient catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates by resin-supported acids and flow reactors”, Catalysts2017,7, 235.

11.  L. Vaccaro,” Biofuels and green chemistry-a common journey ahead”, Biofuel Res. J.20174, 713–714. 


1.  L. Vaccaro*. Editor of the thematic series of Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry on Green Chemistry, Editorial:Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2016, 12, 2763–2765

green chem 2016 issue 8

2. D. Rasina, A. Kahler-Quesada, S. Ziarelli, S. Warratz, H. Cao, S. Santoro, L. Ackermann*,  L. Vaccaro*. Heterogeneous Palladium-Catalysed Catellani Reaction in Biomass-Derived γ-Valerolactone, Green Chem. 201618, 5025-5030.

3.  D. Rasina, A. Lombi, S. Santoro, F. Ferlin, L. Vaccaro*.Searching for novel reusable biomass derived solvents: furfuryl alcohol/water azeotrope as medium for the waste-minimised copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloadditionGreen Chem. 201618, 6380-6386.

4.  X. Tian, F. Yang, D. Rasina, S. Warratz, M. Bauer, F. Ferlin. L. Vaccaro*,  L. Ackermann*. C–H Arylations of 1,2,3-Triazoles by Reusable Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysts in Biomass-Derived γ-Valerolactonerogeneous, Chem. Commun. 201652, 9777-9780.

5. A. Marrocchi*, A. Facchetti, D. Lanari, C. Petrucci, L. Vaccaro*. Current methodologies for a sustainable approach to π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Energy. Environ. Sci., 20169, 763‒786.

6.  S. Santoro, S. Kozhushkov, L. Ackermann*, L. Vaccaro*. Heterogeneous Catalytic Approaches in C–H Activation Reactions. Green Chem.2016,18, 3471-3493

org lett

7.  D. Lanari*, M. Alonzi, F. Ferlin, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*. A Catalytic Peterson-like Synthesis of Alkenyl Nitriles. Org. Lett. 201618, 2680–2683

8.  A. Marrocchi*, A. Facchetti, D. Lanari, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*. Click-Chemistry Approaches to Pi-conjuganted polymers for organic electronics applications. Chemical Science 20167, 6298-6308. 

9.  G. Strappaveccia, T. Angelini, L. Bianchi, S. Santoro, O. Piermatti, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro*.A Protocol for the Waste-Minimized Synthesis of β-Cyano Ketones Promoted by a Heterogeneous Fluoride Catalyst. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2016358, 2134-2139. 

highlighted in Synfacts 201612 (10), 1101.

oprd 2016

10.    E. Ballerini, R. Maggi, F. Pizzo, D. Gelman, O. Piermatti, L. Vaccaro*. An efficient and waste minimized one-pot procedure for the preparation of γ-amino alcohols starting from α,β-unsaturated ketones in flow. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2016, 20, 474-479.

11.        M. P. Bracciale, A. Broggi*, E. Bartollini, F. Sbardella, M. Poldi, A. Marrocchi*, M. L. Santarelli, L. Vaccaro*.Preparation and characterization of cross-linked polymer supports for catalysts immobilization. Int. J. Eng. Res. Sci. 20162, 166‒189.

OBC 2016 14

12.  G. Strappaveccia, S. Ziarelli, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. PS-BEMP as a Heterogeneous Base Catalyst for Phospha-Michael Addition of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 35213525.

highlighted in Synfacts 201612 (07), 0759.

 13. V. Kozell, M. McLaughlin, G. Strappaveccia, S. Santoro, L. A. Bivona, C. Aprile, M. gruttadauria, L. Vaccaro*. Sustainable Approach to Waste-Minimized Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Reaction Based on Recoverable/Reusable Heterogeneous Catalytic/Base System and Acetonitrile Azeotrope,ACS Sus. Chem. Eng. 20164, 7209-7216.

14. V. Santacroce, F. Bigi, A. Casnati, R. Maggi, L. Storaro, E. Moretti, L. Vaccaro, G. Maestri. Selective monomethyl esterification of linear dicarboxylic acids with bifunctional alumina catalysts, Green Chem. 201618, 5764-5768.


1.         M. Tassi, E. Bartollini, P. Adriaensens, L. Bianchi, B. Barkakaty, R. Carleer, J. Chen, D. K. Hensley, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro*. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of novel large network polystyrene-immobilized organic bases. RSC Advances20155, 107200‑107208. 

2.          A. Marrocchi, P. Adriaensens, E. Bartollini, B. Barkakati, R. Carleer, J. Chen, D. K. Hensley, C. Petrucci, M. Tassi, L. Vaccaro*. Novel cross-linked polystyrenes with large space network as tailor-made catalyst supports for sustainable media. Eur. Pol. J.  201575, 391–401.

3.    M. Nocchetti, C. Petrucci, F. Costantino, O. Piermatti, L. Vaccaro*. Highly Active Pd Nanoparticles Supported on Zirconium Carboxy-aminophosphonate Nanosheets as Novel Catalyst for Sustainable Applications. Chem. Commun. 201551, 15990-15993.

4.   Reductive Amination of Phenols, a Simple Process To Access Substituted Cyclohexylamines. 2015, Org. Lett. 201517, 3990−3993.

5.       L. A. Bivona, F. Giacalone, L. Vaccaro, C. Aprile, M. Gruttadauria. Cross-Linked Thiazolidine Network as Support for Palladium: A New Catalyst for Suzuki and Heck Reactions. ChemCatChem 20157, 2526–2533.

6.       S. Musa, A. Ghosh, L. Vaccaro, L. Ackermann, D. Gelman,. Efficient E-Selective Transfer Semihydrogenation of Alkynes by Means of Ligand-Metal Cooperating Ruthenium Catalyst. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2015357, 2351 –2357.

7.         L. Bianchi, E. Ballerini, M. Curini, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi, C. Oldani, L. Vaccaro*. Aquivion PFSA as a Novel Solid and Reusable Acid Catalyst in the Synthesis of 2-Pyrrolidin-2-ones in Flow. ACS Sus. Chem. Eng20153, 1873−1880.

8.         E. Ballerini, M. Curini, D. Gelman, D. Lanari, O. Piermatti, F. Pizzo, S. Santoro, L. Vaccaro*. waste minimized multistep preparation in flow of β‑amino acids starting from α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids. ACS Sus. Chem. Eng20153, 1221‑1226.

9.   C. Petrucci, L. Vaccaro*. Prodotti chimici dalle biomasse: il γ-valerolattone, alternativa sostenibile ai solventi dipolari aprotici in reazioni di cross-coupling. La Chimica e l’Industria (ISSN 0009-4315)- 2015, 97, 52‑58. DOI:

10.   C. Petrucci, M. Cappelletti, O. Piermatti, M. Nocchetti, M. Pica, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Immobilized palladium nanoparticles on potassium zirconiumphosphate as an efficient recoverable heterogeneous catalyst for aclean Heck reaction in flow. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chemical 2015401, 27–34.

11.      G. Strappaveccia,L. Luciani, E. Bartollini, A. Marrocchi, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Searching for a biomass derived safer dipolar aprotic medium. γ-Valerolactone as an alternative medium for a greener Sonogashira reaction. Green Chem, 2015,17, 1071–1076.

12.    J. Andraos, E. Ballerini, L. Vaccaro*. A comparative approach to the most sustainable protocol for the β-azidation of α,β-unsaturated ketones and acids. Green Chem. 201517 913–925.

13.      G. Strappaveccia,E. Ismalaj, C. Petrucci, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi, M. Drees,A. Facchetti, L. Vaccaro*. Biomass-derived safe medium to replace toxic dipolar solvents and access cleaner Heck coupling reactions. Green Chem. 201517, 365‑372.


1.         C. Petrucci, G. Strappaveccia, F. Giacalone, M. Gruttadauria, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. An E-factor minimized protocol for a sustainable and efficient Heck reaction in flow. ACS Sus. Chem. 2014, 2, 2813−2819.

2.         S. Bonollo, A. Zarei Ahmady, C. Petrucci, A. Marrocchi, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. A Catalytic Approach to the Metal-Free Reaction of Epoxides with Ketene Silyl Acetals for Accessing γ‑Lactones, Org. Lett. 201416, 5721‑5723.

3.         E. Ismalaj, G. Strappaveccia, E. Ballerini, F. Elisei, O. Piermatti, D. Gelman, L. Vaccaro*. γ-Valerolactone as a renewable dipolar aprotic solvent deriving from biomass degradation for the Hiyama reaction. ACS Sus. Chem. Eng. 20142, 2461-2464.

4.         L. Vaccaro*, G. Strappaveccia, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi. Flow approaches towards sustainability. Green Chem. 201416, 3680‑3704.

5.         E. Ballerini, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Waste minimized synthesis of γ-nitroketones. Proven Green Syntheses, Volume 1, CRC Press. 2014, pp. 109‑119.

6.         E. Ismalaj, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*Environmentally-friendly synthesis of norstatines in water. Proven Green Syntheses, Volume 1, CRC Press. 2014, pp. 191‑202.

7.         C. Pavia, F. Giacalone, L. A. Bivona, A. M. P. Salvo, C. Petrucci, G. Strappaveccia, L. Vaccaro, C. Aprile, M. Gruttadauria. Evidences of release and catch mechanism in the Heck reactioncatalyzed by palladium immobilized on highlycross-linked-supported imidazolium salts. J. Mol Catal. A: Chem. 2014387, 57–62.

8.         A. Broggi, I. Tomasi, L. Bianchi, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro. Small Molecular Aryl Acetykenes: chemically taioloring high-efficiency organic semicoductors for solar cells and field-effect transistors. ChemPlusChem 201479, 486‑507.

9.         T. Angelini, S. Bonollo, E. Ballerini, D. Lanari, R. Maggi, G. Sartori, L. Vaccaro*. Multistep flow procedure for the waste-minimized preparation of N-Boc-β-amino ketones. J. Flow Chem. 20144,40‑43.

10.      M. Angeloni, O. Piermatti, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Synthesis of new supported L-proline on zirconium phosphonates as effective catalysts for direct asymmetric aldol addition. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 1716‑1726. highlighted in SYNFACTS 2014, 650.


Green Chem., 2013, 15, 2394–2400     DOI: 10.1039/c3gc40988k
A waste-minimized protocol for the preparation of 1,2-azido alcohols and 1,2-amino alcohols

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1.         A. Marrocchi, M. Gruttadauria, L. Vaccaro*. Nuovi strumenti sintetici per la sintesi sostenibile di semiconduttori organici. La chimica e l’Industria 2013, 115‑119.

2.         M. Alonzi, M. P. Bracciale, A. Broggi, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi, M. L. Santarelli, L. Vaccaro*. Synthesis and characterization of novel polystyrene-supported TBD catalysts and their use in the Michael addition for the synthesis of Warfarin and its analogues. J. Catal. 2014309, 260–267.

3.         O. Cohen, O. Grossman, L. Vaccaro, D. Gelman. Synthesis of chiral nonracemic PC(sp3)P pincer ligands. J. Organom. Chem. 2014750, 13‑16.

4.         C. G. Piscopo, G. Sartori, J. A. Mayoral, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro, R. Maggi. Study on the influence of a sustainable medium for the design of multistep processes: three-component synthesis of 2-nitroamines. Synlett 201324, 2596-2600.

5.         M. Alonzi, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro*. Synthesis of polymeric semiconductors by surface-initiated approach. RSC Advances. invited review article, 2013, 3,23909-23923.

6.         E. Ballerini, P. Crotti, I. Frau, D. Lanari, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. A waste-minimized protocol for the preparation of 1,2-azido alcohols and 1,2-amino alcohols. Green Chem. 201315, 2394-2400. HOT PAPER, cover journal accepted for publication.

7.         S. Musa, S. Fronton, L. Vaccaro, D. Gelman. Bifunctional Ruthenium(II) PCP Pincer Complexes and Their Catalytic Activity in Acceptorless Dehydrogenative Reactions. Organometallics 201332, 3069−3073.

8.         C. Pavia, E. Ballerini, L. A. Bivona, F. Giacalone, C. Aprile, L. Vaccaro*, M. Gruttadauria. Palladium Supported on Cross-Linked Imidazolium Network on Silica as Highly Sustainable Catalysts for the Suzuki Reaction under Flow Conditions. Adv. Synth. Catal., 2013355, 2007 – 2018. 

9.         T. Angelini, S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro. E-Factor minimized hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes catalyzed by polystyryl-BEMP under solvent-free conditions. Org. Biomol. Chem.201311, 5042–5046. highlighted in SYNFACTS 2013, 1133.

10.      E. Bartollini, M. Seri, S. Tortorella, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, A. Marrocchi, L. Vaccaro*. Sustainable synthetic approach to p-conjugated arylacetylenic semiconductors for bulk heterojunction solar cells. RSC Adv.20133, 9288–9295. 

11.      S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro*. (R,R)-6,6-Bis(1-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-2,2-bipyridine, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Wiley 2012.

12.      G. Strappaveccia, D. Lanari, D. Gelman, F. Pizzo, O. Rosati, M. Curini, L. Vaccaro*. Efficient synthesis of cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers via 1,2-chemoselective cyanosilylation of carbonyls. Green Chem. 2013, 199–204. 


-A. Facchetti,* L. Vaccaro, A. Marrocchi. Semiconducting polymers prepared by direct arylation polycondensation. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 3520 – 3523 (13.455).

– A. Marrocchi, D. Lanari, A. Facchetti, L. Vaccaro*. Poly(3-hexylthiophene): synthetic methodologies and properties in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Energy Env. Sci. 2012, 5, 8457-8474 (9.610).

– T. Angelini, S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. A Protocol for Accessing the β‑Azidation of α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 4610-4613 (5.250).

– S. Gabrielli, A. Palmieri, D. Panmand, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro, R. Ballini. β-Nitroacrylates as Key Starting Materials for the One-Pot Synthesis of Densely Functionalized Penta-Substituted Anilines. Tetrahedron, 2012, 68, 8231-8235 (3.060).

– D. Lanari, O. Piermatti, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry, A. Mohammad and Inamuddin (eds.), Springer, 2012. .

– D. Lanari, O. Piermatti, F. Pizzo, L. Vaccaro*. Cu(OTf)2/SDS-catalyzed preparation of 1,2-diphenyl-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones in acidic aqueous medium. Synthesis 20122181 2184 (2.466).

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, L. Vaccaro*. (R,R)-6,6-Bis(1-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-2,2-bipyridine, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Wiley 2012.

– T. Angelini, D. Lanari, R. Maggi, F. Pizzo, G. Sartori, L. Vaccaro*. Preparation and use of polystyryl-DABCOF2 : an efficient recoverable and reusable catalyst for β-azidation of α,β-unsaturated ketones in water. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2012, 354, 908–916 (6.048). highlighted in SYNFACTS 2012, 689.

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari*, L. Vaccaro*. [2]Catenanes on surfaces as candidates for nanoelectronic dePi-electron systems. Organic synthesis for efficient plastic electronics.

– A. Marrocchi,*I. Tomasi, and L. Vaccaro*. Organic small-molecules for photonic and electronics from the [2.2]paracyclophane scaffold. 2012, 52, 41–52.(0.794). Invited, special issue on “Cyclophanes”.

– L. Vaccaro. New synthetic tools for the definition of sustainable continuous flow reactors. La chimica e l’Industria 2012, 64‑68.

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari*, T. Angelini, F. Pizzo, A. Marrocchi, and L. Vaccaro*. Rasta resin as support for TBD in base-catalyzed organic processes. J. Catal. 2012, 285, 216-222 (5.415).

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, J. M. Longo, and L. Vaccaro*. E-factor minimized protocols for the polystyryl-BEMP catalyzed conjugate additions of various nucleophiles to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Green Chem.2012, 14, 164-1695 (5.472).


– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, F. Pizzo, and L. Vaccaro*. Sc(III)-catalyzed enantioselective addition of thiols to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones in neutral water. Org.Lett. 201113, 2150–2152 (5.250). highlighted in SYNFACTS 2011, 811).

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, and L. Vaccaro*. Ring-opening of epoxides in water. Eur. J. Org. 2011, 2587–2598 (3.206). Invited account on personal scientific achievements.

-D. Lanari, F. Montanari, F. Marmottini, O. Piermatti*, M. Orrù, and L. Vaccaro. New zirconium hydrogen phosphate alkyl and/or aryl phosphonates with high surface area as heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts for aza-Diels–Alder reaction in aqueous medium. J. Catal. 2011277 80–87 (5.415).

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari, A. Marrocchi and L. Vaccaro*. Stereoselective ring-opening reactions of epoxides in water. Curr. Org. Synth. 2011, 8, 319‑329 (3.952). Invited, special issue on “Water-mediated Organic Reactions”.

– A. Palmieri,* S. Gabrielli, D. Lanari, and L. Vaccaro. A new one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted indoles from pyrroles and beta-nitroacrylates. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2011353, 1425–1428 (5.250).

– P. Wolfer, M. L. Santarelli, L. Vaccaro, L. Yu, T. D. Anthopoulos, P. Smith, N. Stingelin,* A. Marrocchi*. Influence of molecular architecture and processing on properties of semiconducting arylacetylene: Insulating poly(vinylidene fluoride) blends. Org. Electron. 201112, 1886–1892 (3.998).

– D. Lanari*, R. Ballini, A. Palmieri, F. Pizzo, and L. Vaccaro*. Diastereoselective three-step route to o-(6-nitrocyclohex-3-en-1-yl)phenol and tetrahydro-6h-benzo[c]chromen-6-ol derivatives from salicylaldehydes. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 2874–2884 (3.206).

– D. Lanari*, R. Ballini, S. Bonollo, A. Palmieri, F. Pizzo andL. Vaccaro*. JandaJel as a polymeric support to improve the catalytic efficiency of immobilized-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) under solvent-free conditions. Green Chem. 201113, 3181‑3186 (5.472).

– S. Calogero, D. Lanari, M. Orrù, O. Piermatti*, F. Pizzo, and L. Vaccaro. Supported L-proline on zirconium phosphates methyl and/or phenyl phosphonates as heterogeneous organocatalysts for direct asymmetric aldol addition. J. Catal. 2011277 112–119 (5.415).

– R. Maggi*, D. Lanari, C. Oro, G. Sartori, and L. Vaccaro*. Heterogeneous bisoxazoline/copper complex: a green catalyst for the enantioselective reaction of nitromethane with substituted benzaldehydes. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 5551–5554 (3.206).

– S. Bonollo, D. Lanari*, L. Vaccaro*. [2]Catenanes on surfaces as candidates for nanoelectronic devices. Curr. Org. Synth. in press (3.952). Invited, special issue on “Functional p-electron systems. Organic synthesis for efficient plastic electronics.

– Flamini, R.; Tomasi, I.; Marrocchi, A.; Carlotti, B.; Spalletti, A. “Synthesis and photobehaviour of donor-pi-acceptor conjugated arylacetylenes” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 2011223, 140-148.